Excavator Classification

The excavator is the main machine for mechanized construction of earth and stone works. Due to its high earthmoving efficiency and large output, it can be used in various soils (and crushed rocks) and is widely used in construction.

Although excavators are very common in large and small construction sites, the classification of excavators can be said to be varied. In many cases, improper excavators may even cause accidents. So what are the specific types of excavators?

The classification of excavators can be divided according to the number of buckets, structural characteristics, operating power, running gear, powerplant, bucket capacity and general conditions. Although there are many types of excavators, the single bucket excavator is the most commonly used machine in excavation machinery, so the classification of the single bucket excavator is highlighted here.

(1) According to the working device of the excavator, it can be divided into four types: positive shovel, back shovel, dragline and grab shovel.

The bucket of the front shovel is mounted on the end of the stick and supported by the boom. The excavation movement is from the bottom to the top, and the tip of the bucket is always curved. It is suitable for excavating the upper surface above the stop surface.

The bucket of the backhoe excavator is also connected with the stick. The excavation action is usually from top to bottom, and the tooth track is circular arc, which is suitable for excavating the seven soils below the stop surface. The bucket of the backhoe excavator moves along the lower edge of the boom. When the boom is placed in the circumferential position, the tip of the bucket tip is suitable, so that a straight excavation surface can be obtained, which is suitable for excavating slopes, side grooves or leveling. site.

The bucket of the dragline excavator is in the shape of a skull, and the front edge of the bucket bottom is equipped with teeth. When working, the bucket is thrown outwards on the excavation surface, the bucket teeth are cut into the soil by the bucket, and then the bucket is excavated by the traction cable. After the digging, the bucket is lifted by the lifting cable, and the turntable is turned to the unloading point. The bucket is flipped over to unload the soil. The shovel excavator can dig the soil below the stop surface and can also be excavated underwater. The excavation range is large, but the excavation accuracy is poor.

The bucket of the shovel excavator is hinged by two or more shovel flaps. When the shovel flap is opened, when the shovel is thrown on the excavation surface, the edge of the flap is cut into the soil, and the shovel is grasped by a steel cable or a hydraulic cylinder, and the shovel is grasped. soil. Unload the soil by loosening the flap. It is used for excavation in foundation pits or underwater, and has a large excavation depth. The small and medium-sized excavators commonly used in earthwork can be replaced and replaced with different buckets. They can be used for different operations and can be converted into cranes, pile drivers, earth-moving machines, etc. excavator. Mining or mining excavators are generally equipped with only one working device for single-operation, so it is called an excavator.


(2) According to the way of walking, it is divided into two types: crawler type and tire type.

(3) According to its transmission mode, it is divided into mechanical transmission and hydraulic transmission.

Hydraulic drive single bucket excavator is an excavator that uses oil pumps, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic motors and other components to transmit power. The pressure oil output from the oil pump drives the hydraulic cylinder or hydraulic motor to work separately. The corresponding parts of the machine are operated, and the backhoe excavator is common. During the backhoeing operation, the boom is lowered to serve as a support.

The bucket is placed on the stop surface by the arm cylinder or the bucket hydraulic cylinder, and the arc is moved, excavated and loaded, and then the starting arm is lifted, and the swing motor is used to steer the unloading point, and the bucket is unloaded. The whole machine is driven by the left and right hydraulic motors, and the motor is reversed and can be moved in, out or turned. Tire walking is also driven by the engine through the gearbox, main drive shaft and differential, but the mechanism is complex.

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Fever L.//SMC Editor